Math Facts

How To: Master Math Facts: Cover-Copy-Compare

This intervention promotes the acquisition of math facts. The  student is given a sheet containing math facts to practice.


  • Joseph, L. M., Konrad, M., Cates, G., Vajcner, T., Eveleigh, E., & Fishley, K. M. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the cover-copy-compare and variations of this self-management procedure. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 122-136.
  • Skinner, C. H., Bamberg, H. W., Smith, E. S., & Powell, S. S. (1993). Cognitive cover, copy, and compare: Subvocal responding to increase rates of accurate division responding. Remedial and Special Education, 14(1), 49-56.
  • Skinner, C. H., McLaughlin, T. F., & Logan, P. (1997). Cover, copy, and compare: A self-managed academic intervention effective across skills, students, and settings. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 295-306.

Math Computation: Student Self-Monitoring of Productivity to Increase Fluency

Description: The student monitors and records her or his work production on math computation worksheets during time-drills—with a goal of improving overall fluency (Maag, Reid, R.,


  • Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel,B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention RtI) for elementary and middle schools (NCEE 2009-4060). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sci ences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from
  • Maag, J. W., Reid, R., & DiGangi, S. A. (1993). Differential effects of self-monitoring attention, accuracy, and productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 329-344.

Peer Tutoring in Math Computation with Constant Time Delay

DESCRIPTION: This intervention employs students as reciprocal peer tutors to target acquisition of basic math facts (math computation) using constant time delay (Menesses &&nbs


  • Deno, S. L., & Mirkin, P. K. (1977). Data-based program modification: A manual. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
  • Menesses, K. F., &  Gresham, F. M. (2009). Relative efficacy of reciprocal and nonreciprocal peer tutoring for students at-risk for academic failure. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 266–275.
  • Telecsan, B. L., Slaton, D. B., & Stevens, K. B. (1999). Peer tutoring: Teaching students with learning disabilities to deliver time delay instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 9, 133-154.

Math Computation: Increase Accuracy and Productivity Rates Via Self-Monitoring and Performance Feedback

Students can improve both their accuracy and fluency on math computation worksheets by independently self-monitoring their computation speed, charting their daily progress, and earning rewards f


  • Bennett, K., & Cavanaugh, R. A. (1998). Effects of immediate  self-correction, delayed self-correction, and no correction on the  acquisition and maintenance of multiplication facts by a fourth-grade  student with learning disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior  Analysis, 31, 303-306.
  • Shimabukuro, S. M., Prater, M. A., Jenkins, A., &  Edelen-Smith, P. (1999). The effects of self-monitoring of academic  performance on students with learning disabilities and ADD/ADHD.  Education and Treatment of Children, 22, 397-414.

Math Computation: Increase Accuracy By Intermixing Easy and Challenging Computation Problems

Teachers can improve accuracy and positively influence the attitude of students when completing math-fact worksheets by intermixing 'easy' problems among the 'challenging' problems.


  • Hawkins, J., Skinner, C. H., & Oliver, R. (2005). The  effects of task demands and additive interspersal ratios on fifth-grade  students' mathematics accuracy. School Psychology Review, 34, 543-555.

Math Computation: Promote Mastery of Math Facts Through Incremental Rehearsal

Incremental rehearsal builds student fluency in basic math facts ('arithmetic combinations') by pairing unknown computation items with a steadily increasing collection of known items.

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