How To: Master Math Facts: Cover-Copy-Compare

This intervention promotes the acquisition of math facts. The  student is given a sheet containing math facts to practice.


  • Joseph, L. M., Konrad, M., Cates, G., Vajcner, T., Eveleigh, E., & Fishley, K. M. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the cover-copy-compare and variations of this self-management procedure. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 122-136.
  • Skinner, C. H., Bamberg, H. W., Smith, E. S., & Powell, S. S. (1993). Cognitive cover, copy, and compare: Subvocal responding to increase rates of accurate division responding. Remedial and Special Education, 14(1), 49-56.
  • Skinner, C. H., McLaughlin, T. F., & Logan, P. (1997). Cover, copy, and compare: A self-managed academic intervention effective across skills, students, and settings. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 295-306.

Self-Monitoring: Customized Math Self-Correction Checklists

DESCRIPTION: The teacher analyzes a particular student's pattern of errors commonly made when solving a math algorithm (on either computation or word problems) and develops a brief


  • Dunlap, L. K., & Dunlap, G. (1989). A self-monitoring package for teaching subtraction with regrouping to students with learning disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 229, 309-314.
  • Uberti, H. Z., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2004). Check it off: Individualizing a math algorithm for students with disabilities via self-monitoring checklists. Intervention in School and Clinic, 39(5), 269-275.

Math Computation: Student Self-Monitoring of Productivity to Increase Fluency

Description: The student monitors and records her or his work production on math computation worksheets during time-drills—with a goal of improving overall fluency (Maag, Reid, R.,


  • Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel,B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention RtI) for elementary and middle schools (NCEE 2009-4060). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sci ences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from
  • Maag, J. W., Reid, R., & DiGangi, S. A. (1993). Differential effects of self-monitoring attention, accuracy, and productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 329-344.

Number Operations: Strategic Number Counting Instruction

DESCRIPTION: The student is taught explicit number counting strategies for basic addition and subtraction.


  • Fuchs, L. S., Powell, S. R., Seethaler, P. M., Cirino, P. T., Fletcher, J. M., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2009). The effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice, on number combination skill among students with mathematics difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences 20(2), 89-100.

Math Problem-Solving: Combining Cognitive & Metacognitive Strategies

Solving an advanced math problem independently requires the coordination of a number of complex skills.


  • Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Boice, C. H. (2008). Best practices in intensive academic interventions. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp.1151-1162). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
  • Montague, M. (1992). The effects of cognitive and metacognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 230-248.
  • Montague, M., & Dietz, S. (2009). Evaluating the evidence base for cognitive strategy instruction and mathematical problem solving. Exceptional Children, 75, 285-302.

Peer Tutoring in Math Computation with Constant Time Delay

DESCRIPTION: This intervention employs students as reciprocal peer tutors to target acquisition of basic math facts (math computation) using constant time delay (Menesses &&nbs


  • Deno, S. L., & Mirkin, P. K. (1977). Data-based program modification: A manual. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
  • Menesses, K. F., &  Gresham, F. M. (2009). Relative efficacy of reciprocal and nonreciprocal peer tutoring for students at-risk for academic failure. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 266–275.
  • Telecsan, B. L., Slaton, D. B., & Stevens, K. B. (1999). Peer tutoring: Teaching students with learning disabilities to deliver time delay instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 9, 133-154.

Math Computation: Increase Accuracy and Productivity Rates Via Self-Monitoring and Performance Feedback

Students can improve both their accuracy and fluency on math computation worksheets by independently self-monitoring their computation speed, charting their daily progress, and earning rewards f


  • Bennett, K., & Cavanaugh, R. A. (1998). Effects of immediate  self-correction, delayed self-correction, and no correction on the  acquisition and maintenance of multiplication facts by a fourth-grade  student with learning disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior  Analysis, 31, 303-306.
  • Shimabukuro, S. M., Prater, M. A., Jenkins, A., &  Edelen-Smith, P. (1999). The effects of self-monitoring of academic  performance on students with learning disabilities and ADD/ADHD.  Education and Treatment of Children, 22, 397-414.

School-Wide Strategies for Managing... MATHEMATICS

Mathematics instruction is a lengthy, incremental process that spans all grade levels.

Jim's Hints

A-Plus Flashcard Maker. You can create math fact flashcards online. Customize your flashcards by type of number operation or even enter your own values to create individual flashcards.

Ask Dr. Math.. Dr. Math is an online math tutorial service, maintained by Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Students can browse a large archive of math questions and answers and post their own questions as well. This tutorial site never closes!

Cognitive Strategies in Math. This site presents several thinking strategies that students can learn to master math computation and applied math problems. It is sponsored by the Special Education Department, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Math Central. Billing itself as ‘an Internet service for mathematics students and teachers’, this site contains math teaching resources, a forum to post math questions, and a challenging ‘math problem of the month.’ Math Central is sponsored by the University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. ||Re

Math Worksheet Generator. Sponsored by Intervention Central, this free site allows users to create math computation worksheets and answer keys for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Use the Worksheet Generator to make math worksheets to use with students who need to build fluency with math facts.

Numberfly: Early Math Fluency Probes. Numberfly is a free application from Intervention Central that allows educators to create CBM progress-monitoring probes of 3 types that assess students' developing numeracy skills: Quantity Discrimination, Missing Number, and Number Identification. This application also includes instructions for administering and scoring these early math assessments, as well as suggestions for using Early Math Fluency Probes in a school-wide RTI Universal Screening.

Teacher2Teacher. Sponsored by Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, Teacher2Teacher describes itself as “a resource for teachers and parents who have questions about teaching mathematics.” Participants can browse archived math teaching questions by level (elementary, secondary), pose their own teaching questions, and take part in on-line discussions on math instruction topics of interest.

Math Computation: Increase Accuracy By Intermixing Easy and Challenging Computation Problems

Teachers can improve accuracy and positively influence the attitude of students when completing math-fact worksheets by intermixing 'easy' problems among the 'challenging' problems.


  • Hawkins, J., Skinner, C. H., & Oliver, R. (2005). The  effects of task demands and additive interspersal ratios on fifth-grade  students' mathematics accuracy. School Psychology Review, 34, 543-555.

Math Computation: Promote Mastery of Math Facts Through Incremental Rehearsal

Incremental rehearsal builds student fluency in basic math facts ('arithmetic combinations') by pairing unknown computation items with a steadily increasing collection of known items.

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