The student reads through a passage repeatedly, silently or aloud, and receives help with reading errors.
- Reading book
- Stop watch (if readings are to be timed)
- The teacher, parent, adult tutor, or peer tutor working with the student should be trained in advance to use the listening passage preview approach.
Steps in Implementing This Intervention:
Step 1: Sit with the student in a quiet location without too many distractions. Position the book selected for the reading session so that both you and the student can easily follow the text.
Step 2: Select a passage in the book of about 100 to 200 words in length.
Step 3: Have the student read the passage through. (Unless you have a preference, the student should be offered the choice of reading the passage aloud or silently.)
Step 4: If the student is reading aloud and misreads a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, read the word aloud and have the student repeat the word correctly before continuing through the passage. If the student asks for help with any word, read the word aloud. If the student requests a word definition, give the definition.
Step 5: When the student has completed the passage, have him or her read the passage again. You can choose to have the student read the passage repeatedly until either the student has read the passage a total of 4 times (Rashotte & Torgesen, 1985) or the student reads the passage at the rate of at least 85 to 100 words per minute (Dowhower, 1987; Herman, 1985).
- Dowhower, S.L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers' fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389-406.
- Herman, P.A. (1985). The effects of repeated readings on reading rate, speech pauses, and word recognition accuracy. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 553-565.
- Rashotte, C.A. & Torgesen, J.K. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 180-188.
- Rasinski, T.V. (1990). Effects of repeated reading and listening-while-reading on reading fluency. Journal of Educational Research, 83(3), 147-150.
Take Steps to Keep the Student Invested in the Activity. Repeated reading is effective as an intervention to build student reading fluency because it gives the student lots of reading practice. However, this activity could become dull and uninteresting for the student over time. If you find that the student is beginning to lose interest in repeated reading, consider:
- Providing praise to the student in specific terms for good reading.
- Allowing the student to pick out high-interest books or articles to use for repeated reading.
- Using a stop-watch, monitor the student's reading rate during each repeated reading and chart the results on a graph.